Writing Terms
Thesis Statement: last sentence of an introductory paragraph, contains a subject, verb and controlling idea
Topic Sentence: first sentence of a paragraph, supports the Thesis Statement
Clincher Statement: reviews main points in an essay, draws everything to a close
Major Supports: main ideas that support the Topic Sentence
Minor Supports: specific details that support the Major Supports
Transitions: words or phrases that connect ideas; help move between sentences and paragraphs
Coherence/Unity: sentences in a paragraph relate to each other; helps create focus

Grammar Terms
8 parts of speech:
Noun: a person, place, thing, or idea
Verb: a word that expresses action, or a state of being
Adjective: a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun
Adverb: a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
Pronoun: takes the place of a common noun
Preposition: explains a relationship between one noun and another
Conjunction: a connecting word
Interjection: a word that expresses strong emotions

Phrase: a group of words containing a subject or a verb
Clause: a group of words containing a subject and a verb
Passive Voice: form of the verb “to be” and a past participle; subject is being acted upon
Parallel Structure: repetition of a word or words to show that two or more ideas are equally important

Literary Terms
Personification: giving human qualities to inanimate or nonhuman objects
Imagery: any descriptive language that evokes one or more of the five senses
Foreshadow: hints or clues about what will happen next
Simile: a comparison using “like” or “as”
Metaphor: a comparison without using “like” or “as”
Allusion: an indirect reference to something outside the current literary work
Conflict: a struggle in the story that creates the plot; may be man vs. man, man vs. nature, or man vs. self